Staff Data Scientist: Comments on Will Larson's Staff Engineer Book

I recently read Will Larson’s excellent book Staff Engineer: Leadership beyond the management track. Larson covers the individual contributor (IC, not management) roles that software engineers fill after they are promoted past Senior Software Engineer, with titles like Staff and Principal (“Staff-plus”). In the book, he synthesizes his own experience and the experiences of a number of other Staff-plus engineers, and provides great insights into how to get promoted to that level, and how to succeed at it. Great book – you should read it.

As someone who has had both management roles and similar IC roles, I thought I would comment on a few things from Larson’s book, and highlight a few things that jumped out as particularly resonant. These comments are based mostly on my recent experience as Staff Data Scientist (mostly focused on Search) at Teachers Pay Teachers, and some initial thoughts as Principal Data Scientist (mostly focused on Growth) at Algolia, where I’ve been for the last month. (I’m going to talk primarily about insights-focused data scientists, what others have called Type A (Analysis). Data Scientists who mostly build machine learning systems have a very different role at this level.)

Quotes are of Larson, unless otherwise specified.


(p.12) The more folks I spoke with about the role of Staff-plus engineers at their company, the better their experiences began to cluster into four distinct patterns…

The Tech Lead guides the approach and execution of a particular team…

The Architect is responsible for the direction, quality, and approach within a critical area…

The Solver digs deep into arbitrarily complex problems and finds an appropriate path forward…

The Right Hand extends an executive’s attention, borrowing their scope and authority to operate particularly complex organization.

As a data scientist, and particularly one who used clustering to define subtypes of Data Scientists in the past, this warmed my heart. The types of work that I’ve done roll up well to versions of these clusters. At TPT, I was a co-lead of the Search team, working with a Product Manager and an Engineering Manager to guide the approach of that team. I wasn’t the Tech Lead – someone else had that formal role – but I very much helped that team be grounded in data and user experiences with search, and in some sense split responsibilities with the PM.

Other projects rolled up to other patterns. I worked closely with the Analytics team on A/B testing, and helped TPT get stronger and smarter about how they ran tests. In some sense, I was the “Architect” of A/B testing, although that sounds more formal than it was. I also did some special projects in partnership with other insights teams, such as a causal statistical analysis of a major product launch, that feel like a “Solver” role.

I haven’t really had a Right Hand role, but can imagine how a data scientist could work closely with a CEO. One part of a CEO’s role, I’ve heard described, is to interpret external reality to get the organization aligned on why they’re doing what they do. Interpreting reality is very much what data scientists do too.

What Staff-plus Data Scientists Do

(p. 20) Staff engineers do [the same tasks as Senior engineers], but whereas previously they were the core of their work, now they’re auxiliary tasks. Their daily schedule [is primarily now]: setting and editing technical direction, providing sponsorship and mentorship, injecting engineering context into organizational decisions, exploration, and what Tanya Reilly calls being glue.

Yes, this. The primary thing I want to highlight is what successfully injecting data science context into organizational decisions means. A thing that data scientists are particularly good at is reasoning about uncertainty. What we can do to support organizational decision-making is to help leaders and management understand what is more certain and less certain, to find ways to reduce uncertainty, and to make the best decisions possible. Tools for this include A/B testing, good data visualization, statistical modeling, stochastic simulation, and other tools from the data science toolkit.

(p. 57) [As] you look at how software changes over time, there are a small handful of places where extra investment preserves quality over time… I call those quality leverage points, and the three most impactful points are interfaces, stateful systems, and data models…

Data models [constrain] your stateful system’s capabilities down to what your application considers legal… A good data model is tolerant of evolution over time. Effective data models are not even slightly clever.

Ooh, data! For software engineers, data models are how the software represents the world that the organization and the software’s users care about. It’s critical to get right. For data scientists, we also care about representing the world, and we can be an important voice in ensuring that the data we use and the work that we (and analysts, and business intelligence engineers, etc.) do actually approximates the real world well. At the staff-plus level, we should have both the business context and the technical skills to help the organization be better at measuring, finding insights, and making decisions that reflect the complexity of the world, while working around problems in the systems that provide our data.

(p. 192) [From an interview with Katie Sylor-Miller at Etsy]

I’ve definitely found that… it’s taking longer to actually find the dedicated focus time to write code as my calendar fills up with meetings… I’m much more focused on identifying areas for opportunity and then trying to sell that as work that my team or other teams should be doing.

In classic management texts, managers are urged to find the highest-leverage thing that they can do, and delegate the rest. The same applies to Staff-plus ICs. Although I spend a lot less time in meetings than I did when I was a manager, I spend more time writing documentation and processes, or helping others up-skill, or researching problems and proposing projects.

(p. 195) [More from Katie Sylor-Miller]

I also think that Staff Engineers should have a broad understanding of all of the adjacent fields of work to their own specialty. For me, working in the frontend, I put a lot of time and effort into understanding marketing, business goals, user experience, visual design, the view and business logic layers on the server, how we ship code to the browser, [etc.] Having expertise in all of these different areas makes it easier for me to see the broader impact of my technical decisions and understand those tradeoffs better.

Yes, and related – I tend to think that an effective data scientist working in the product organization at a tech company should be able to operate as a software engineer a couple of levels lower. So if a Staff Data Scientist is a “level 5” role (which it often is), then someone filling that gap should be able to operate as a Senior (level 3) Software Engineer. This doesn’t mean that you should be spending your time writing production code (not very high leverage), but it does mean that you should be able to read production code and be able to think about and communicate about software architecture and implementation at that level. (Of course, if you work in another type of organization, or outside of product, other rules of thumb probably apply.)

How Staff-plus Data Scientists Succeed

(p. 36) Hunter Walk recommends that folks avoid “snacking,” [easy and low-impact work,] when they prioritize… [Y]ou’re unlikely to learn much from doing them, others are likely equally capable of completing them (and for some of them, it might be a good development opportunity), and there’s a tremendous opportunity cost versus doing something higher impact.

For data scientist, the snacking is often “pulling data” or other relatively routine work. I do think it’s important for data scientists to spend a limited amount of time on this, however, for a few reasons. It’s a good way to learn about organizational data and business problems, both of which are critical to be well-versed in. It also builds good will with colleagues in other departments. And it provides an opportunity to say “yes, and” – to provide the requested data, but also to suggest new higher-impact initiatives that may be possible.

(p. 39) You should swarm to existential problems, but if a problem isn’t existential, then you should be skeptical of adding your efforts where everyone’s already focused… Instead, the most effective places to work are those that matter to your company but still have enough room to actually do work. What are priorities that will become critical in the future, where you can do great work ahead of time? Where are areas that are doing ok but could be doing great with your support?

Data scientists are often in the unique position of having insight into what’s changing at an organization, because of our closeness to the data. Being able to say “hey, I’m seeing this thing, and here’s what I think we should do about it” is a strong place to be.

(p. 42) Whatever it is, things that simply won’t happen if you don’t do them are your biggest opportunity to work on something that matters, and it’s a category that will get both narrower and deeper the further you get into your career.

Yes, and related:

(p. 119) [E]arly in your career, you’re given well-defined problems, but as you get deeper into it, you’ll increasingly encounter poorly defined or undefined problems, and Staff projects will generally start with a poorly scoped but complex and important problem… From that broad, unclear (and potentially wrong) statement, you’ll have to identify a concrete approach that works.

Yes, yes, yes. Doing data science at any level involves having a conversation with stakeholders to understand and refine the problem, so that you can tackle it in the most meaningful way. This gets harder or more critical at more senior levels.

(p. 178) [In an interview with Keavy McMinn from Fastly]

[Staff-plus engineers] all work on different things, but we have a common goal of taking a holistic, long-term and system-wide view on things. We also try to find and help with the sort of things across engineering that might get overlooked or fall between the cracks. Our CTO supports our work, but doesn’t identify the projects to work on, that’s up to us.

As a Staff-plus data scientist, I really think that it’s best to split your time between the vague but important asks that come your way, and initiatives that nobody else is thinking of yet. Of course, we need to build support from management as we go, to ensure that we’ll be able to create impact from a project.


(p. 75) [Roughly,] management is a specific profession, and leadership is an approach one can demonstrate within any profession…

[L]eaders have a sufficiently refined view of how things ought to work such that they can rely on their distinction between how things are and how they ought to be to identify proactive, congruent actions to narrow the gap. [Also,] they care enough about the gap to actually attempt those narrowing actions.

At the Staff-plus level, data scientists should have a broad enough context to identify and prioritize what needs to change, and a broad enough set of skills (soft and technical) to actually push things forward. This could mean writing a memo to senior management, supported by statistical analyses, or it could mean writing a technical spec to an audience of software engineers.

(p. 168) [In an interview with Ras Kasa Wililams, Staff Engineer at Mailchimp.]

[O]nce you become a Staff Engineer, you’re a member of “Engineering Leadership”… In my view, it’s about thinking globally. That means partnering with other[s]… to understand the company-wide business/product strategy and distill that into an Engineering-wide technical strategy… It’s about taking that global thinking and applying it locally.

Especially in the “Tech Lead” version of the role, the Staff-plus data scientist is working to keep a team aligned with the company’s goals as a whole. This can sometimes cause some disagreements. On the TPT Search team for instance, the three co-leads (myself, the Product Manager, and the Engineering Manager) each represented different goals, and we had to work together to align them. I represented specific pain-points in the user experience and associated metrics; the PM represented current high-level product priorities; and the EM represented software quality and robustness, and the developer experience. We were generally effective at this because we all understood how our work rolled up to long-term success, and because we all communicated effectively and frequently with each other and colleagues on other teams across product development, marketing, and other divisions.

Defining the Role

A thing I’ve appreciated about becoming more senior is that you get more of an opportunity to define your role, and define what success should look like. Part of that is working with management to write job descriptions, and part of it is helping to define what successful data science at your organization means.

(p. 171) [Still from Ras Kasa Williams]

[At Mailchimp, there’s] a recurring call for all Staff, Senior Staff, and Principal Engineers meant as a space to surface and discuss problems, assign owners and action items when needed, and generally build community with each other.

I really like this, and I think there’s enough commonality in roles between Staff-plus Software Engineers and Staff-plus Data Scientists that we should join this sort of peer group whenever it exists. Many of the “soft skills” challenges of having leadership expectations without formal management authority are the same. Plus we can talk about the irritating parts of Python.

There’s much more in the book worth discussing from the point of view of a Staff-plus Data Scientists. If you have thoughts or experiences, I’d love to hear them!

ps – shout-out to Aaron Schumacher, who excerpted some other great snippets from the book in his blog last year!